Louis A. Kazal, Jr., MD, Physician at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Community Health Center, wrote in an Oct. 1, 2002 article titled "Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers," in the American Family Physician:

“The primary prevention of iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers hinges on healthy feeding practices. In infants, the introduction of cow’s milk in the first year of life is the greatest dietary risk factor for the development of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. Cow’s milk is low in iron, and its iron is poorly absorbed. In addition, it decreases the absorption of iron from other dietary sources. Therefore, the strict avoidance of cow’s milk in the first 12 months of life is essential in preventing iron deficiency anemia…

In the second year of life, cow’s milk continues to cause problems in maintaining iron stores, and its consumption should be limited to less than 24 oz per day, with some clinicians calling for a stricter limit of 16 oz per day.”

Oct. 1, 2002