Last updated on: 12/6/2022 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Milk,”, June 15, 2021 “Milk,”, June 15, 2021
2.Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, “Dairy Products,” (accessed Apr. 27, 2022)
3.Richard P. Evershed, et al., “Earliest Date for Milk Use in the Near East and Southeastern Europe Linked to Cattle Herding,”, Aug. 6, 2008
4.David K. Bandler and R. Paul Singh, “Dairy Products,”, Apr. 8, 2021
5.Pauline Osena, “Top 10 Surprising Foods That Contain Dairy,”, Sep. 26, 2016
6.Kurt Suchman, “Wait, Are Eggs Dairy?,”, Apr. 21, 2021
7.Amber Charles, “Pasteurized vs. Unpasteurized Foods: What’s the Difference?,”, Mar. 18, 2022
8.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Pasteurization,”, May 4, 2021
9.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Homogenization,”, Apr. 20, 2021, “Raw Milk Laws State-by-State,”, Feb. 2, 2018
11.Matt Hale, “Exploring the Growth of Plant-Based Milk,”, Sep. 23, 2021
12.USDA, “Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025,”, Dec. 2020
13.National Dairy Council, “13 Ways Milk Can Help Your Body,”, 2021
14.USDA, “My Plate: Dairy,” (accessed Apr. 28, 2021)
15.Stephanie Brown, “USDA Recommends 3 Cups of Dairy Per Day. Is It Too Much?,”, Nov. 12, 2021
16.Jill Riepenhoff, et al., “Deserted: Access to Healthy, Fresh and Affordable Foods Is Elusive for Millions Who Live in Rural America,”, June 14, 2021
17.William A. Masters and Anna Herforth, “3 Billion People Cannot Afford a Healthy Diet,”, July 9, 2021
18.National Institutes of Health Institute on Aging, “Healthy Eating As You Age: Know Your Food Groups,”, Feb. 25, 2022
19.Mahshid Dehghan, et al., “Association of Dairy Intake with Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in 21 Countries from Five Continents (Pure): A Prospective Cohort Study,”, Nov. 24, 2018
20.Sophie Putka, “Is Milk Bad for You? Here's What the Science Says, “, Jan. 26, 2021
21.Emiko Terazono in London and Camilla Hodgson, “How Methane-Producing Cows Leapt to the Frontline of Climate Change,”, Oct. 10, 2021
22.Kat Smith, “Is Cheese Worse for the Planet Than Beef?,” (accessed May 4, 2022)
23.Emily Lombardo, “Some Less than Brie-lliant News…,”, May 18, 2021
24.Tanya Lewis, “The Top 10 Foods with the Biggest Environmental Footprint,”, Sep. 19, 2015
25.Samuel Webb, “Is Dairy or Meat Worse for the Environment?,”, Oct. 30, 2021
26.Hannah Ritchie, “Dairy vs. Plant-Based Milk: What Are the Environmental Impacts?,”, Jan. 19, 2022
27.Christian Løvold Storhaug, Svein Kjetil Fosse, and Lars T. Fadnes, “Country, Regional, and Global Estimates for Lactose Malabsorption in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,”, July 6, 2017
28.Harvard Health Publishing, “The Sweet Danger of Sugar,”, Jan. 6, 2022
29.Brenda Goodman, “Rethinking Milk: Science Takes On the Dairy Dilemma,”, Feb. 14, 2020