Andrew J. Clifford, PhD, Department of Nutrition at the University of California Davis, Charles Y. Ho, PhD, Division of Biological Sciences at Emporia State University, and Helene Swenerton, PhD, Department of Nutrition at the University of California at Davis, wrote in their Aug. 1983 article, "Homogenized Bovine Milk Xanthine Oxidase: A Critique of the Hypothesis Relating to Plasmalogen Depletion and Cardiovascular Disease," in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:

“Homogenized milk was first proposed as a culprit in the development of heart disease in 1971 [by Dr. Kurt Oster]. Homogenization of milk was described as a ‘procedure which foists unnaturally small particles on our digestive tract.’ Xanthine oxidase, absorbed from micro- sized lipid droplets of homogenized milk, was reported to cause tissue damage and initiate the atherosclerotic process which culminates in ischemic heart disease.

The plasmalogen depletion/xanthine oxidase hypothesis has been reviewed and discussed in relation to recently published experimental data…

In summary, experimental evidence has failed to substantiate, and in many cases has refuted, the hypothesis that homogenized bovine milk xanthine oxidase intake or plasmalogen depletion are causal factors in the development of atherosclerosis.”

Aug. 1983