Diane Feskanich, ScD, Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School, wrote in a 2003 article, cowritten with Walter C. Willett, and Graham A. Colditz, titled "Calcium, Vitamin D, Milk Consumption, and Hip Fractures: A Prospective Study Among Postmenopausal Women," published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, that:

“Milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D and therefore might be expected to decrease osteoporotic bone loss and fracture risk, yet research has not generally supported this assumption. Evidence from clinical trials and case-control studies has been mixed, and several observational studies found no decrease in risk of bone fracture with higher consumption of milk and dairy foods…

Milk is a good source of both calcium and vitamin D, yet fortified milk also contains significant amounts of vitamin A, which has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. In this study among postmenopausal women, milk was not associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture, even among those drinking 600 mL.

In conclusion, our study adds to the evidence that adequate vitamin D intake is associated with a lower occurrence of osteoporotic hip fractures in postmenopausal women. A high-calcium diet appears to be of less importance. Although fortified milk is one of the few food sources of vitamin D, high consumption does not appear to substantially reduce the risk of hip fracture, perhaps because of other nutrients in the milk, such as vitamin A, that do not support bone health.”