Solenne Costard, PhD, Senior Consultant at EpiX Analytics, et al, in an article for the June 2017 edition of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal titled "Outbreak-Related Disease Burden Associated with Consumption of Unpasteurized Cow's Milk and Cheese, United States, 2009–2014," available from, wrote:

“Unpasteurized dairy products are responsible for almost all [95%] of the 761 illnesses and 22 hospitalizations in the United States that occur annually because of dairy-related outbreaks caused by STEC [E.coli], Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes [Listeria], and Campylobacter spp… Consumers of unpasteurized milk and cheese are a small proportion of the US population (3.2% and 1.6%, respectively), but compared with consumers of pasteurized dairy products, they are 838.8 times more likely to experience an illness and 45.1 times more likely to be hospitalized…

An easing of regulations has allowed greater access to unpasteurized milk in recent years, and this study shows that illnesses and hospitalizations will rise as consumption of unpasteurized dairy products increases. If such consumption were to double, the mean number of outbreak-related illnesses that occur every year would increase by 96%. Most unpasteurized dairy-related outbreaks are caused by pathogen contamination at the dairy farm.”

June 2017