Is Drinking Milk a Good Way to Build Strong Bones?
General Reference (not clearly pro or con)
Justin Merritt, PhD, Research Scientist, Fengxia Qi, PhD, Assistant Professor, and Wenyuan Shi, PhD, Professor and Chair, all of the department of Oral Biology at the UCLA School of Dentistry, wrote in their May 2006 paper “Milk Helps Build Strong Teeth and Promotes Oral Health for Life,” published in the Journal of the California Dental Association:
“Milk has the right ingredients for promoting oral health. Besides the obvious beneficial factor, calcium, milk also contains multiple proteins important for oral health. Casein is a family of proteins comprising 80% of the milk protein that can help to recruit calcium phosphates to repair the cavity. Casein is also able to prevent the adhesion of cavity-causing bacteria to the tooth surface. In addition to casein, milk also contains whey proteins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and antibodies that can promote oral health via their strong antibacterial activities…
These proteins are generally thought to have a positive effect on cariogenesis via two mechanism: prevention of demineralization and inhibition ob bacterial attachment and/or biofilm formation.”May 2006
The National Dairy Council wrote in its article “A Protective Effect of Dairy Foods in Oral Health,” published on its website (accessed Jan. 17, 2008):
“Milk’s nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and others support the development of teeth and oral tissues in young children which may help to protect against dental caries. Although evidence is limited, milk’s nutrients such as calcium may have a role in protecting against periodontal disease in adults…
Several different types of studies indicate that milk is noncariogenic and does not promote dental caries.”Jan. 17, 2008
J. Thomas Russell, DDS, General Dentist at Yellow Springs Dental Care, wrote in a June 11, 2006 post “Teeth Don’t Need Milk,” on his dental practice website:
“Milk is an essential nutrient for bone. We need calcium in our diets at every age, to have healthy bone.
However, after a tooth erupts, calcium can neither be taken from nor added to the tooth–it is unavailable to the body. After the tooth erupts into the mouth drinking milk cannot ‘strengthen’ the enamel or any other part of the tooth. Our last teeth (the wisdom teeth) come into the mouth at around 17 to 20 years of age.”June 11, 2006
International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), in an Aug. 16, 2016 article for iofbonehealth.org titled “Milk and Other Dairy Foods Are Good for Bone Health,” wrote:
“A myth which often re-surfaces in media reports is that milk may not be beneficial to bone health. Bone health experts are concerned that this may be causing confusion among the general public and causing many people to avoid milk and dairy foods unnecessarily – when in fact they are among the best sources of bone-healthy nutrients…
– Dairy products, including milk, are an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, protein and other nutrients that are important both for bone and overall health…
– Evidence strongly supports the benefits of dairy products for bone and muscle health. Studies have shown that bone loss is reduced and there is an improvement in muscle mass and strength with adequate dairy intake.
– Milk and other dairy foods are the most readily available sources of calcium… It is important to note that people would need to eat numerous servings of kale or broccoli or other non-dairy foods to get the equivalent amount of calcium provided by just one serving of yoghurt, cheese, or milk.”Aug. 16, 2016
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) stated in its Mar. 13, 2006 publication for the Milk Matters campaign titled “Building Strong Bones: Calcium Information for Health Care Providers”:
“You can help children achieve lifelong bone health by talking to parents and young people about the importance of calcium consumption, especially during ages 11 to 15, a time of critical bone growth. Children and teenagers can get most of the their daily calcium from 3 cups of low-fat or fat-free milk…
Although calcium is found in a variety of foods, the 1994 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Statement on Optimal Calcium Intake designated dairy products as the preferred source of calcium because of their high calcium content. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans also recommends milk and milk products as sources of dietary calcium based on studies that show a positive relationship between intake of milk and milk products and bone mineral content or bone mineral density in one or more skeletal sites…
Low-fat or fat-free milk [is] the best source of calcium because it has high calcium content without added fat, and because the calcium is easily absorbed by the body.”Mar. 13, 2006
Connie Weaver, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Food and Nutrition at Purdue University, reported in her Jan. 2002 presentation at the Calcium Summit II conference titled “Bone Health Hazards: The Make-It-Or-Break-It Teenage Years”:
“Adolescence is a critical time to optimize bone health, given that approximately 50% of skeletal mass is accrued during adolescent years. In girls, 95% of total body mineral mass is accumulated by age 17 and 99% by age 27. Optimizing bone health during adolescence not only reduces future risk of osteoporosis, but also helps to prevent forearm fractures during youth…
Findings from ongoing studies indicate that four to five servings/day of calcium-rich foods such as milk and other dairy products are needed to optimize peak bone mass during adolescence. Osteoporosis is a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences. With low calcium intake levels during important bone growth periods, today’s youth faces a serious public health problem in the future.”Jan. 2002
Heidi Kalkwarf, PhD, RD, Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center et al., wrote in their paper “Milk Intake During Childhood and Adolescence, Adult Bone Density, and Osteoporotic Fractures in U.S. Women,” published Jan. 2003 in the American Journal of the College of Nutrition:
“We found that low milk intake during childhood and adolescence was associated with low[er] BMC [bone mineral content] or BMD [bone mineral density] of the hip in adulthood… in women who reported consuming <1 serving of milk/week than in women who consumed >1 serving/day during childhood and adolescence. This presumably represents a persistent negative effect of low milk intake during growth on bone mass and density of the hip that is not completely ameliorated by current calcium or milk intake. Furthermore, among women 50 years of age or older, those with low milk intake during childhood had a 2-fold greater risk of fracture than did women with high milk intake during childhood…
We found that milk intake in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased bone mass and density in adulthood, and this effect is independent of current milk or calcium intake. These findings support efforts to promote a diet containing one or more servings of milk/d for girls during childhood and adolescence to increase bone mass and density in adulthood and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture.”Jan. 2003
Emil Q. Javier, PhD, Former President of the National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) (Philippines), in an Apr. 8, 2017 article for the Manila Bulletin titled “Whole Foods and Plant-Based Diets for Longer Healthier Lives (Part III),” wrote:
“American women aged 50 and older who consume more cow’s milk and dairy products per person than the rest of the world have one of the highest rates of hip fractures. The only countries with higher hip fracture rates are Australia, New Zealand and those in Europe where they consume even more milk than the United States. Evidence for this was provided by Yale University School of Medicine researchers who summarized the data on protein consumption and bone fracture rates from 34 separate surveys in 16 countries…
Further support for the strong association between milk consumption and osteoporosis was provided by a study of 1,000 women aged 64 and up over a seven-year period conducted by scientists from the University of California at San Francisco… The women with the highest ratio of animal protein to plant protein had 3.7 times more bone fractures than the women with lowest ratio. Likewise, the women with the high ratio lost bone almost four times as fast as the women with the lowest ratio.
These observations therefore contradict the common wisdom that protein-rich foods especially milk protect our bones.”Apr. 8, 2017
The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine stated in its website publication “Parents’ Guide to Building Better Bones” (accessed June 21, 2007):
“There is much debate over whether long-term consumption of dairy products helps bones at all. A good deal of evidence suggests that it does not. Several studies of teenagers have found that their adult bone health is related to their physical activity level earlier in life, but not to the amount of milk or calcium they consumed. Milk consumption is apparently no help later in life either. In a 12-year Harvard study(1.49 MB) of 78,000 women, those who got the most calcium from dairy products received no benefit and actually broke more bones than the women who got little or no calcium from dairy. Similarly, a 1994 study of elderly men and women in Sydney, Australia, showed that those who consumed the most dairy products had double the hip fracture rate of those who consumed the least.
These findings indicate that despite the amount of calcium in dairy products, other dairy compounds accelerate calcium loss. Animal proteins and salt are two likely suspects.”June 21, 2007
Amy Joy Lanou, PhD, Senior Nutrition Scientist at the Physician’s Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) et al., explained in their Mar. 2005 Pediatrics article “Calcium, Dairy Products, and Bone Health in Children and Young Adults: A Reevaluation of the Evidence”:
“Calcium intake, turnover, and absorption and excretion rates determine the availability of calcium for bone growth and development [referred to as the calcium balance]… Factors that affect calcium balance, including dietary calcium intake, likely play a role in bone development… Dairy products contain nutrients, including protein, sodium, and in some cases, supplemental vitamin D, all of which influence calcium balance and bone mineralization and alter or negate the effect of dairy calcium in the body’s mineral economy. Animal protein and sodium, in particular, tend to increase calcium excretion…
Increases in dairy or total dietary calcium intake (>400-500 mg/day) are not correlated with or a predictor of BMD [bone mineral density] or fracture rate in children and adolescents. We found no evidence to support the notion that milk is a preferred source of calcium…
Available evidence does not support nutritional guidelines focused specifically on increasing milk or other dairy product intake for promoting child and adolescent bone mineralization.”Mar. 2005
Stephen Walsh, Science Coordinator for the International Vegetarian Union, wrote in his Dec. 16, 2001 letter to the editor of BBC News titled “Milk ‘Best Calcium Source’ for Girls?”:
“Bone health is influenced by many factors, including calcium, protein, potassium, phosphate, vitamin-D, vitamin-K and magnesium. Up to 10,000 years ago no humans consumed cow’s milk yet the archaeological record shows that our ancestors, in common with our ape relatives, maintained excellent bone health without having to steal milk from the children of other mammals to do so. Our ancestral diet, and that of other apes, includes abundant levels of all the nutrients required for bone health, drawn overwhelmingly from plant sources.”Dec. 16, 2001