Last updated on: 12/7/2009 | Author:





Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Cow-Share Agreement

Dental Caries

E. Coli
Enteric Fermentation

Federal Milk Marketing Order

Grade A Milk



Johne’s Disease


Lactose Intolerance
Linoleic Acid
Low Fat Milk

Mad Cow Disease
Milk Allergy
Milk Fever


Ovarian Cancer



Raw Milk
Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone
Ruminant Animal

Saturated Fat
Skim Milk










Anemia One of the most common blood disorders. It is characterized by low levels of red blood cells in the body. This condition is often caused by a lack of iron in the diet.   

Bioavailability The degree and rate at which a substance (such as a drug, vitamin, or mineral) is absorbed and made available to the body.   

Brucella A type of aerobic bacteria that causes brucellosis, also known as Malta fever, a disease that causes fever, weakness, and bodily pain. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or animals.   

Casein One of the main proteins found in milk. Casein is manufactured from skim milk and used in processed foods (such as dessert toppings and coffee whiteners) and in industrial products such as glue, paint, and plastics.   

Colic Severe abdominal pain caused by spasm, obstruction, or distention of the intestines. The condition is often seen in infants less than three months of age.   

Colostrum A thin, yellow fluid consisting of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates that is secreted by the mammary glands during the first few days after giving birth.   

Conjugated Linoleic Acid A member of the family of linoleic acids, which are found primarily in meat and dairy products. It is believed by some researchers to reduce the incidence of breast cancer, improve asthma, and control allergies and diabetes.   

Cow-Share Agreement Also known as a herd-share agreement.  A cow-share/herd-share is an agreement entered into by an individual, or group of individuals, whereby they pay a farmer a fee for boarding and milking the cow(s) that they own.  After the cows are milked, the individual or group then obtains the milk from the farmer.   

Dental Caries Soft decayed areas in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth.   

Diabetes A disease in which the body is unable to metabolize sugar properly due to an innability to produce enough insulin. Symptoms of diabetes include frequent urination, excessive thirst, extreme hunger, fatigue, and irritability. If left untreated it can cause kidney, nerve, and heart damage.   

E. Coli One of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals). It is necessary for the proper digestion of food. When some strains of E. coli get into the intestinal tract (usually through the mouth), they can cause dysentery in people whose immune systems are weak.   

Enteric Fermentation
The microbial fermentation that occurs in the digestive track of ruminant animals, such as cows, that enables them to digest coarse plant material. Methane is produced by bacteria as a by-product of this fermentation process and is exhaled or belched by the animal.   

Any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions.   

Federal Milk Marketing Order Rules establishing minimum prices for the sale of raw, fluid-grade (Grade A) milk from the producer to the processor or manufacturer. Federal milk marketing orders were established in the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (amended). In 1999-2003, between 65 and 76 percent of all milk marketed in the United States was marketed under FMMOs.   

Galactose A type of sugar found in milk products and sugar beets. It is also made by the body. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has calories.   

Grade A Milk To meet the USDA standards of Grade A milk, milk should not exceed 40 degrees Farenheit and should have a low bacterial count. To be designated Grade A milk, many standards and prohibitions apply such as the prohibition of adding water, absence of antibiotics, exclusion of milk from diseased animals, exclusion of colostrum, proper construction and maintenance of facilities, and cooling milk within the prescribed period of time to a temperature that restricts microbial growth.   

Hypertension Persistently high arterial blood pressure. Can be caused by genetics, stress, and diet. Untreated hypertension increases the risk of heart disease.   

IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also known as somatomedin C, is a natural growth hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults.   

Isoflavones A class of organic compounds and biomolecules related to the flavonoids. They act as phytoestrogens in mammals. They are also very strong antioxidants. Isoflavones may be useful in treating cancer.   

Johne’s Disease A chronic infection, caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium johnei), involving the small and large intestines. The disease affects cattle particularly, but sometimes also affects sheep, goats, and deer. It is characterised by the appearance of a persistent diarrhoea, gradual emaciation, and great weakness.   

Lactase An enzyme involved in breaking down lactose (a milk sugar) into galactose and glucose (digestable forms of sugar for individuals with lactose intolerance).   

Lactose A sugar found only in milk. It is comprised of one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule.   

Lactose Intolerance The innability to digest lactose (a milk sugar) resulting from a lack of the enzyme lactase in the gastrointestinal tract.   

Laminitis Inflammation of the laminated tissue that attaches the hoof to the foot.   

Linoleic Acid An unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid found in grass-fed cow’s milk.   

Listeria A disease causing bacterium found widely in nature. It can be carried in a variety of foods such as dairy products, red meat, poultry, seafood, and vegetables.   

Low Fat Milk In the United States “low fat” milk contains 1% milk fat, as opposed to about 3.25% in “whole” milk. In low fat milk, 23% of the calories come from fat.   

Mad Cow Disease The common term for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, a fatal disease of cattle that affects the central nervous system causing staggering, agitation, and death. It is transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated beef.   

Mastitis Inflammatory disease of the breast or mammary gland.   

Milk Allergy An allergic reaction to one or more of the proteins found in milk. A primary allergen is the milk protein casein.   

Milk Fever A fever which accompanies or precedes the first lactation. It is usually transitory. The term also refers to a variety of meningitis occurring in cows after calving.   

Organic Food produced without the use of synthetic chemical pesticides, hormones, or fertilizers. The term “organic” means that 95-100% of the ingredients in the product are organic. In the case of organic milk, dairy cows must be grass fed at pasture when seasons permit, and cannot be treated with any hormones or antibiotics.   

Osteoporosis Abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women.   

Ovarian Cancer A form of cancer found in the ovaries (reproductive organs of women responsible for the production of eggs).   

Pasteurization The process by which liquid foods are heated to a temperature that destroys disease causing bacteria.   

Phytoestrogens Chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal cells and bodies. They are often found in trace amounts in food. They are a comparatively recent discovery, and researchers are still exploring the nutritional role of these substances in such diverse metabolic functions as the regulation of cholesterol and the maintaining of proper bone density post-menopause.   

Posilac The trade name for Monsanto’s synthetic recombinant bovine growth hormone.   

Raw Milk Milk that has not been pasteurized or homogenized.   

Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH), also known as rBST, is a synthetic version of Bovine Growth Hormone (a naturally occurring growth hormone) that is injected into a cow to artificially maintain her milk production.   

Ruminant Animal An animal that has a large fore-stomach, or rumen, within which microbial fermentation breaks down coarse plant material into a digestible food. Cows, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels are all ruminant animals.   

Salmonella A pathogenic, diarrhea-producing bacterium that is the leading cause of human food borne illness among intestinal pathogens. It is commonly found in varying amounts in raw meats, poultry, milk, and eggs, but other foods can carry it too.   

Saturated Fat A type of fat found in greatest amounts in foods from animals, such as fatty cuts of meat, poultry with the skin, whole-milk dairy products, lard, and in some vegetable oils, including coconut, palm kernel, and palm oils. Over consumption of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol and is a contributor to obesity and heart disease.   

Skim Milk Labeled as “fat free” milk in the United States, skim milk is milk that has had its fat levels reduced to 0.5% as opposed to the 3.25% that is found in “whole” milk.