DEAR PROCON.ORG READERS: We’re being outspent by biased organizations that use millions of dollars to misinform you. This week we’re asking our readers to help us. We survive on donations, which keep us independent and ad-free. If every one of our readers gave $3 now, the price of a cup of coffee, our fundraiser would be over. We’re a small nonprofit, but it costs a lot to keep our servers, research staff, and programs going. ProCon.org is your oasis on the Internet for unbiased information on important issues. If ProCon.org is useful to you, please take a minute to keep us online and ad-free. Thank you.
Biology Online, an informational website about biology, included this definition in its "Dictionary" section, (accessed Feb. 20, 2007):
- A white fluid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals for
the nourishment of their young, consisting of minute globules of fat
suspended in a solution of casein, albumin, milk sugar, and inorganic
Douglas Goff, PhD, Professor of Food Science at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, stated on his webpage "Dairy Chemistry and Physics," (accessed Feb. 20, 2007):
"The role of milk in nature is to nourish and provide immunological protection for the mammalian young... Milk is also a very complex food with over 100,000 different molecular species found. There are many factors that can affect milk composition such as breed variations, cow to cow variations, herd to herd variations - including management and feed considerations, seasonal variations, and geographic variations. With all this in mind, only an approximate composition of milk can be given: 87.3% water (range of 85.5% - 88.7%); 3.9% milkfat (range of 2.4% - 5.5%); 8.8% solids-non-fat (range of 7.9% - 10.0%) including protein (3.25%), lactose (4.6%), minerals (0.65%), acids (0.18%), enzymes, gases, and vitamins...
Due to its role in nature, milk is in a liquid form. This may seem curious if one takes into consideration the fact that milk has less water than most fruits and vegetables. Milk can be described as an oil-in-water emulsion with the fat globules dispersed in the continuous serum phase, a colloid suspension of casein micelles, globular proteins and lipoprotein particles, and a solution of lactose, soluble proteins, minerals, vitamins and other components."
Walter L. Hurley, PhD, Professor of Animal Science at the University of Illinois, provided the following definition on his website "Lactation Biology," (accessed Feb. 20, 2007):
"The newborn mammal
is still very much dependent on the mother for provision of a nutrient
supply that matches its digestive capabilities. This nutrient supply is
is of paramount importance to survival, proper development, and
vigorous growth of the neonate [newborn]. Milk is the only supply of
the water, organic nutrients, and minerals to which the neonate has
access. Milk supplies everything to the neonate except air! It has a
high caloric value and generally is balanced for the nutrient needs of
the rapidly developing young of that species. Colostrum (the first milk
taken from the mammary gland after parturition) and mature milk also
contain nonnutrient substances (such as antibodies and bioactive
factors) that may be important for growth, development, and survival of
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia offered the following description, (accessed Feb. 21, 2007):
"Liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals to nourish their young. The milk of domesticated animals is also an important food source for humans. Most milk consumed in Western countries is from cows; other important sources include sheep, goats, water buffalo, and camels. Milk is essentially an emulsion of fat and protein in water, along with dissolved sugar, minerals (including calcium and phosphorous), and vitamins, particularly vitamin B complex. Commercially processed cow's milk is commonly enriched with vitamins A and D."